Public concepts of how to share and manage the finite supplies of water are changing. Increasing competition exists between power, irrigation, municipal, industrial, recreation, aesthetic, and fish and wildlife uses. Within the United States, critical examinations of water use will be based on consumption, perceived waste, population density, and impact on ecological systems and endangered species. Water districts will need to seek ways to extend the use of their shares of water by the best available technologies. Best management measures and practices without exception depend upon conservation of water. The key to conservation is good water measurement practices. Moisture analysis covers a variety of methods for measuring moisture content in both high level and trace amounts in solids, liquids, or gases. Moisture in percentage amounts is monitored as a specification in commercial food production. There are many applications where trace moisture measurements are necessary for manufacturing and process quality assurance. Trace moisture in solids must be controlled for plastics, pharmaceuticals and heat treatment processes. Gas or liquid measurement applications include dry air, hydrocarbon processing, pure semiconductor gases, bulk pure gases, dielectric gases such as those in transformers and power plants, and natural gas pipeline transport.