Catalytic Converter

Air pollution generated from mobile sources is a problem of general interest. Vehicle population is projected to grow close to 1300 million by the year 2030. Due to incomplete combustion in the engine, there are a number of incomplete combustion products CO, HC, NOx, particulate matters etc. These pollutants have negative impact on air quality, environment and human health that leads in stringent norms of pollutant emission.

Numbers of alternative technologies like improvement in engine design, fuel pretreatment, use of alternative fuels, fuel additives, exhaust treatment or better tuning of the combustion process etc. are being considered to reduce the emission levels of the engine. Among all the types of technologies developed so far, use of catalytic converters based on platinum (noble) group metal is the best way to control automotive exhaust emissions.

This review paper discusses automotive exhaust emissions and its impact, automotive exhaust emission control by platinum (noble) group metal based catalyst in catalytic converter, history of catalytic convertor, types of catalytic convertor, limitation of catalytic convertor and also achievements of catalytic convertor.

The catalytic converter does a great job at reducing the pollution, but it can still be improved substantially. One of its biggest shortcomings is that it only works at a fairly high temperature. When you start your car cold, the catalytic converter does almost nothing to reduce the pollution in your exhaust.

♦ What is catalytic converter?

As the name suggests, it basically converts harmful gases into harmless gases, which are environment friendly, with the help of a catalyst.

Engine exhausts having harmful gases like CO, NOx & HC which are converted into harmless gases like CO2, N2 & H2O respectively with the use of catalytic converter.