What is geotextile?
As we know, the prefix of geotextile, geo, means earth and the ‘textile’ means fabric. Therefore, according to the definition of ASTM 4439, the geotextile is defined as follows:
"A permeable geosynthetic comprised solely of textiles. Geotextiles are used with foundation, soil, rock, earth, or any other geotechnical engineering-related material as an integral part of human-made project, structure, or system."
The ASAE (Society for Engineering in Agricultural, Food, and Biological Systems) defines a geotextile as a "fabric or synthetic material placed between the soil and a pipe, gabion, or retaining wall: to enhance water movement and retard soil movement, and as a blanket to add reinforcement and separation." A geotextile should consist of a stable network that retains its relative structure during handling, placement, and long-term service. Other terms that are used by the industry for similar materials and applications are geotextile cloth, agricultural fabric, and geosynthetic .
During the last some years we often hear the term «geotextiles» or, in a Russian manner, Many construction companies who have already used this interesting and promising material and have appraised its characteristics and properties, probably, do not know who its inventor was.
Geotextiles will prevent two soil layers of different particle sizes from mixing with each other, as is illustrated the image below.
Geotextiles will efficiently collect superfluous water from structures, such as rainwater or surplus water, from the soil and discharge it.
Geotextiles are an ideal interface for reverse filtration in the soil adjacent to The geotextile. In all soils water allows fine particles to be moved. Part of these particles will be halted at the filter interface; some will be halted within the filter itself while the rest will pass into the drain. The complex needle-punched structure of the geotextile enables the retention of fine particles without reducing the permeability of the drain.
Heavy geotextiles can be used to reinforce earth structures by means of fill materials. Thanks to their high soil fabric friction coefficient and high tensile strength, they are an ideal reinforcement solution.
Geotextiles are an ideal protection from erosion of earth embankments by wave action, currents or repeated drawdown. A layer of geotextiles can be placed so as to prevent leaching of fine material. They can be used for rock beaching or as mattress structures. They can even easily be placed under water.