Today's crisis in the field of energy supplies, environmental control, population increase, poverty and shortage of food and materials are closely interrelated. Now we see that a 5 % yearly increase in the use of energy not only points to fuel depletion, but is also a main cause for increase in pollution level and related disasters. Too many ambitious single-purpose plans are made with little or no regard to the interdependent short and long-term social-economic and environmental effects, which has caused concern over the arising global environmental issues.
The present paper highlights the perspectives and some issues related to integrated renewable energy system. Though the global issues related to renewable energy are discussed here, the paper concentrates on the issues, which are more directly related to developing country like India. Extensive survey has been carried out to cover domestic, agricultural and industrial sector to know their energy related details. The study shows that bio energy caters about 84% of the domestic energy needs. This study shows that the present use pattern is non-sustainable and planning of regional energy lacks integrated approach. Thus, even though the bioenergy is a renewable resource, because of vast gap between rate of consumption and rate of regeneration has led to unsustainability. The factors, which directly and indirectly affect the use and promotion of energy sources in the area, are discussed in detail.
Ever since 1973 oil crises, many countries have justifiably maintained an abiding interest in renewable energy sources and as a result many renewable energy programs were developed. Main advantage of renewable energy is that its main ingredient is renewable and it plays crucial role in environmental standards by combating global warming and other threats. At the current rate of energy consumption, the limited reserves of coal, oil, and gas may last only for 197 years, 40 years, and 56 years respectively.
Our forests on the other hand are declining due to many reasons and recent studies show that firewood demand is not the only reason for forest degradation, though it contributes significantly. Environmental health of our planet is degrading and it is losing its ecological balance. Climate change, ozone depletion, acid rain, global warming, loss of biodiversity are some of the threats to be tackled if planet earth has to survive for long time. Energy issues are the focus of all these threats and therefore it needs special attention. Renewable energy sources promise to meet all the challenges, so as to attain the sustainable development.
The principle types of renewable energies available today are:
All the above renewable could make a major contribution to meet the present energy needs.