The basic idea for this project is taken from intelligent transportation systems considering the sensing technology RFID. Countries like Europe, US and Japan are working together in the promotion of road safety to have safe and comfortable journey. For road navigation many safety measures have been considered by knowing the details of vehicles like Vehicle identification, speed of vehicles, length and their weight, distance between vehicles and number of vehicles, traffic in any metropolitan city, available roadways, routes and motorways and so on . From basic management systems to more advanced applications many technologies were developed of which we now considered RFID technology for lane level navigation.
In the existing system for lane level navigation we considered the tracking of vehicle by using GPS (Global Positioning System). By knowing the longitude and latitude of the vehicle position, locating the vehicle at a particular place was simpler using map matching technology and GPS. Though the existing system could meet the requirement in most cases, in critical climatic conditions location of vehicle is little problematic. GPS signals may not be accurate at times and unfamiliar person in a vehicle may be misguided in new places. Considering this situation an idea with accurate positioning of vehicle in a metropolitan city is developed so that a person can easily drive off safely in critical areas.
In the proposed system critical areas like school zone, hospital zone, speed limit area along with traffic density indication are considered so that a person can be notified beforehand about the area and the speed of the vehicle is automatically controlled. This project can serve best in Indian road navigation.
In the near future in countries like India for complex traffic environments where the vehicles are manually driven or automated or semi automated this project is much useful and can play a key role. Power optimization and cost reduction with safe navigation and speed control all in one go is possible with this project.
The future implementation of this system can be done through GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) where communication media can be cellular. To implement this project RFID technology working on 8051/8052 based AT89S52 microcontroller is used. Basic units of this RFID technology are Antenna or coil, RFID Reader (transceiver), RFID Tag (transponder). RFID Readers are mobile since they are attached to road and passive Tags are fixed on the vehicles. The other modules used in this project are 8051/8052 based microcontroller (AT89S52), DC motors along with driver (L293DNE), Serial Communication port UART with interfaces RS232 and MAX232. LCD to display information, LED, Buzzer to alert user, Voice playback module (aPR33A3) to record and playback information for user guidance, and power supply for all sections of the kit.
RFID tags (transponder) with obstacle avoidance sensor is placed at the centre of vehicle's front bumper. RFID reader are deployed on the road. Whenever a vehicle passes by on the road reader unit queries the tag about the data required. Using Inductive coupling technique reader sends the information in the form of Radio Waves. According to the data obtained which is displayed on the vehicle's screen following action is performed. If any obstacles obtained i.e, animals, it can simply moves back and obstacle is clear then it goes to the right way. Our project has two objectives the main aim is to specify particular place along with speed control of the vehicle specifically when it enters sensitive zones like school zone, accident prone areas or hospital zone or where ever the speed limit is noticed. The second is to notify the traffic density and diversion of route using data received.
For miniature purpose we in this project selected school zone, hospital zone and speed limit area. When robotic vehicle passes through a RFID reader accordingly to the specified zone RFID reader gets the data and the action of speed control is initiated by controlling the speed of the vehicle using Pulse Width Modulation technique. After moving through these sensitive zones at certain time limit the speed is automatically raised in the current lane. And when the traffic density is more ahead in the current lane we can take the available route to travel avoiding consumption of time and fuel.
In this project 8051/8052 with AT89S52 microcontroller which is the heart of kit performing specified tasks is used and controls all the other units. UART is used for communication. DC motor driver L293D is required for driving the DC motors of the robotic vehicle. LCD is used to display the data received by reader from tag. Voice play back is implemented so that we can be more sure and alarmed about the position of vehicle in a zone. Buzzer is played when the traffic is more in the current lane and diversion is taken accordingly. If any animal or obstacle is present in the right way then it moves back and if the obstacle is clear then it moves to forward. Power is supplied to all sections and a front wheel is provided for free movement of the robotic vehicle. Keil software is used to dump the code into the kit through Flash Magic Tool. The RFID frequency used for passive tags is in the range 15 to 135 KHz which is lower frequency band¬¬
Gathering information through wireless technologies
Highly useful in traffic clearance and avoiding accidents
Can be used in ambulances
Accessible through world wide
Wild Life monitoring and research
This project is a standalone intelligent transport system using RFID technology. The main objective of this project is achieved by providing lane level navigation guidance to each and every individual using a vehicle. The result of this project is highly beneficial by reducing cost and optimizing power along with speed control. From the above discussion and information of this system, it can be concluded that it is highly reliable, effective and economical in urban, semi urban and also dense traffic areas. Though it is not possible to install such system in all available vehicles, it certainly provides benefit to us and thereby to our nation. This project is developed to help people in ground based navigation making the present working system to be a better one.