In nature every living being require most comfortable shelter. A building for dwelling purpose is called the residential building. The residential buildings are constructed for life-time hence requires standard considerations at every stage of its planning, designing and construction.
Engineering is a professional art of applying science to the efficient conservation of natural resources for the benefit of man. Civil engineers do the well conversant planning, designing and construction with guiding principles according to the provisions made by Indian Standard (IS) codes and Building by Laws.
Residential buildings need to be planned according to the needs of the occupants and also according to available funds. A residential building can be divided into three major areas. They are
1. Living area:
This area is for general use so the living and dining room should be planned near entrance. It should be sufficiently lighted and offer an attractive view of the surrounding landscape and garden etc.
2. Sleeping area:
This area provides bedrooms for sleeping and relaxing. They should be located so as to provide privacy.
3. Service area:
This area includes the kitchen, dining room, bath room. Kitchen may be adjacent to the dining room or separate. They should also be provided with necessary fixtures.
All the three areas and rooms are designed depending on the purpose of the each room. The purpose decides the size, placing and size of windows, furniture etc. The rooms mentioned above are grouped together by means of a passage, lobby, staircase etc. The area for them should be smaller and at the same time it should be well ventilated and lighted.
The present project deals with the design of the G+5 residential building having total 10 flats. The design provided with 2 flats in each floor among them one double bed room flat and other triple bed room flat also the parking plan is provided at the stilt. Designing is made by considering the practical points as following
Provision for future extension without dismantling the structure.
The elements of the building should be strong and capable to withstand the likely adverse effects of natural agencies.
Building bye -laws
The rules and regulations covering the requirements of building ensuring the safety of the public through open spaces, minimum size of rooms, heights and area limitations are known as building bye laws. A bye law is a local law framed by a sub-ordinate authority. The Indian standard institute (ISI) has published IS: 1256 “code of building laws” covering all the silent aspects of building activities.
Objectives of bye-laws
1. Provision of bye laws gives guide lines to the designing engineers and made easy to pre-plan the building activities.
2. The building bye laws prevent the building from the damages caused by natural hazards depending on the development of the area as whole.
3. The provision of building bye laws usually affords safety to human beings who work and live in them.
Principles underlying building bye - laws
Classification of buildings
Classification of rooms
Controlling height of structures
Specifying suitable arrangements with respect to drainage and water supply
Specifying marginal spaces and set backs
Specifying minimum size of plots, their dimensions and frontages.