A conventional differential that is non-locked differential always supplies close to equal torque to each side. With an automotive differential if one wheel is held stationary, the counterpart wheel turns at twice its normal speed. A differential locking system introduced here can be engaged or disengaged either manually or automatically, as per the conditions or a sensor based system can be developed that will sense the difference in speed or stalling of one wheel to lock the differential by sliding a dog ring to get engaged in planetary gear spike shaft so that both wheels will have same traction. If the difference in the speed of driven and rolling wheels is encountered then the differential is controlled to lock.
FUNCTION OF DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM IN A MOTOR VEHICLE
When the car is taking a turn, the outer wheel will have to travel greater distance as compared to the inner wheel.
If the car has solid rear axle only and have no other device there will be tendency for the wheel to skid.
If wheel skidding is to be avoided, some mechanism should be provided in the rear axle, which should reduce the speed of the inner wheels when the vehicle is taking turn, it should be done at the same time keep the speeds of all the wheel same when going straight ahead.
The details of the differential functions:-
- Avoids skidding of the rear wheels on a road while turning.
- Reduces the speed of inner wheels and increases the speed of outer wheels, while going to a curve.
- Keeps equal speeds of all wheels while moving on a straight stretch.
- Eliminates a single rigid rear axle and provided coupling between two rear axles.
LOSS OF TRACTION IN DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM
- When one of the wheels goes in a pit condition during the loss of traction or friction between road and wheels .Wheel shaft stops turning.
- LH wheel shaft speed increasing than twice the transmission speed vehicle tyres cannot generate enough traction to come out of the pit.
- The sensor sense the drop in speed then the electronic relay operated the DC motor.
- Shifter mechanism moves the dog ring to the right and dog teeth engage in the shaft slot.
- Engagement will lock then the differential action is stop and both wheel shafts get engaged in drive and equal power is given by other wheels.
- Wheels After receiving the power pulls or push the vehicle out of pit.
ADVANTAGES OF DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM
- It can easily move of vehicle, having braking system with slightly modification.
- It can also give quick response time, control and better than the existing systems.
- Low grade lubrication oil can be used as heat loss is reduction.
- Its construction is simple as compared to another part of vehicles like as engines, transmission system etc.
Advantages of typical differential system are as following:-
For Open Differential
- Simple design.
- Few moving parts.
- Inexpensive to produce.
For Locked Differential
- No moving parts, extremely durable and strong.
- Maintains constants speed between both wheels.
- Produce a stabilization force acting through the real axle, which is resist vehicle rotation.