The Microcontroller based drip irrigation system proves to be a real time feedback control system which monitors and controls all the activities of drip irrigation system efficiently. The present proposal is a model to modernize the agriculture industries at a mass scale with optimum expenditure. Using this system, one can save manpower, water to improve production and ultimately profit.
DESIGN OF MICRO CONTROLLER BASED DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM
The key elements that should be considered while designing a mechanical model: -.
Flow: You can measure the output of your water supply with a one or five gallon bucket and a stopwatch. Time how long it takes to fill the bucket and use that number to calculate how much water is available per hour. Gallons per minute x 60=number of gallons per hour.
Pressure (The force pushing the flow): Most products operate best between 20 and 40 pounds of pressure. Normal household pressure is 40-50 pounds.
Water Supply & Quality: City and well water are easy to filter for drip irrigation systems. Pond, ditch and some well water have special filtering needs. The quality and source of water will dictate the type of filter necessary for your system. .
Soil Type and Root Structure: The soil type will dictate how a regular drip of water on one spot will spread. Sandy soil requires closer emitter spacing as water percolates vertically at a fast rate and slower horizontally. With a clay soil water tends to spread horizontally, giving a wide distribution pattern. Emitters can be spaced further apart with clay type soil. A loamy type soil will produce a more even percolation dispersion of water. Deep-rooted plants can handle a wider spacing of emitters, while shallow rooted plants are most efficiently watered slowly (low gph emitters) with emitters spaced close together. On clay soil or on a hillside, short cycles repeated frequently work best. On sandy soil, applying water with higher gph emitters lets the water spread out horizontally better than a low gph emitter.
Elevation: Variations in elevation can cause a change in water pressure within the system. Pressure changes by one pound for every 2.3 foot change in elevation. Pressure-compensating emitters are designed to work in areas with large changes in elevation.
Timing: Watering in a regular scheduled cycle is essential. On clay soil or hillsides, short cycles repeated frequently work best to prevent runoff, erosion and wasted water. In sandy soils, slow watering using low output emitters is recommended. Timers help prevent the too-dry/too-wet cycles that stress plants and retard their growth. They also allow for watering at optimum times such as early morning or late evening.
Watering Needs: Plants with different water needs may require their own watering circuits. For example, orchards that get watered weekly need a different circuit than a garden that gets watered daily. Plants that are drought tolerant will need to be watered differently than plants requiring a lot of water.
The components of microcontroller based drip irrigation system are as follows: -
Chemical Injection Unit
Drip lines with Emitters
Moisture and Temperature Sensors.
The microcontroller unit is now explained in detail:-AT89C51 is an 8-bit microcontroller and belongs to Atmel's 8051 family. ATMEL 89C51 has 4KB of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM) and 128 bytes of RAM. It can be erased and program to a maximum of 1000 times.
1) Are relatively simple to design and install.
2) This is very useful to all climate conditions any it is economic friendly.
3) This makes increase in productivity and reduces water consumption.
4) Here we are micro controllers so there is error free.
5) This is safest and no man power is required. permit other yard and garden work to continue when irrigation is taking place , as only the immediate plant areas are wet.
6) Reduce soil erosion and nutrient leaching.
7) Reduce the chance of plant disease by keeping foliage dry.
8) May be concealed to maintain the beauty of the landscape, and to reduce vandalism and liability when installed in public areas.
9) Require smaller water sources, for example, less than half of the water needed for a sprinkler system.
1) This is only applicable for large size farms.
2) Equipment is costlier.
3) Require frequent maintenance for efficient operation.
4) Have limited life after installation due to the deterioration of the plastic components in a hot, arid climate when exposed to ultraviolet light.
5) Are temporary installations and must be expanded or adjusted to the drip line as plants grow.