Intrusion is some time also called as hacker or cracker attempting to break into or misuse your system. While introducing the concept of intrusion detection in 1980, defined an intrusion attempt or a threat to be the potential possibility of a deliberate unauthorized attempt to
manipulate information, or
Render a system unreliable or unusable.
Intrusion detection systems do exactly as the name suggests: they detect possible intrusions. More specifically, IDS tools aim to detect computer attacks and/or computer misuse, and to alert the proper individuals upon detection. An intrusion detection system (IDS) inspects all inbound and outbound network activity and identifies suspicious patterns that may indicate a network or system attack from someone attempting to break into or compromise a system. An IDS installed on a network provides much the same purpose as a burglar alarm system installed in a house. Through various methods, both detect when an intruder/attacker/burglar is present, and both subsequently issue some type of warning or alert.
HOW DOES IDS WORK?
Intrusion detection systems serve three essential security functions: they monitor, detect, and respond to unauthorized activity by company insiders and outsider intrusion. Intrusion detection systems use policies to define certain events that, if detected will issue an alert. In other words, if a particular event is considered to constitute a security incident, an alert will be issued if that event is detected. Certain intrusion detection systems have the capability of sending out alerts, so that the administrator of the IDS will receive a notification of a possible security incident in the form of a page, email, or SNMP trap. Many intrusion detection systems not only recognize a particular incident and issue an appropriate alert, they also respond automatically to the event. Such a response might include logging off a user, disabling a user account, and launching of scripts.
passive system: in a passive system, the IDS detects a potential security breach, logs the information and signals an alert
Reactive system. In a reactive system, the IDS respond to the suspicious activity by logging off a user or by reprogramming the firewall to block network traffic from the suspected malicious source.
Network Intrusion Detection Systems
A network IDS (NIDS) monitors all traffic on the network segment that it is placed on. This is generally accomplished by placing the network interface card in promiscuous mode to capture all network traffic that crosses its network segment. Network traffic on other segments can't be monitored unless the traffic is directed to the NIDS promiscuous interface.
Network Intrusion Detection involves looking at the packets on the network as they pass by the NIDS. The NIDS can only see the packets that are carried on the network segment it’s attached to. Packets are considered to be of interest if they match a signature or certain behavior. Network Intrusion Detection Systems are placed at a strategic point or points within the network to monitor traffic to and from all devices on the network. Ideally you would scan all inbound and outbound traffic; however doing so might create
a bottleneck that would impair the overall speed of the network.
Host Based Intrusion Detection Systems
A Host IDS (HIDS) uses a piece or pieces of software on the system to be monitored. The loaded software uses log files and/or the system's auditing agents as sources of data. In contrast, a NIDS monitors the traffic on its network segment as a data source.
Host based intrusion detection involves not only looking at the network traffic in and out of a single computer, but also checking the integrity of your system files and watching for suspicious processes. To get complete coverage at your network with HIDS, you must load the software on every computer. Host based Intrusion Detection is much more effective in detecting insider attacks than is NIDS. Host Intrusion Detection Systems are run on individual hosts or devices on the network. A HIDS monitors the inbound and outbound packets from the device only and will alert the user or administrator of suspicious activity is detected.