Nanotechnology deals with studies of phenomena and manipulation with elements of matter at the atomic, molecular and macromolecular level (range from 1 to 100 nm), where the properties of matter are significantly different from their properties at larger scales of dimensions. Nanotechnology is science, engineering and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nm where nano denotes the scale range of 10-9 and nanotechnology refers the properties of atoms and molecules measuring thoroughly 0.1 to 1000 nm. Nanotechnology is highly interdisciplinary as a field, and it requires knowledge drawn from a variety of scientific and engineering arenas.
There are two main types of approaches to nanotechnology: the first approach is Top-down and another one is Bottom-up approach. The Top-down approach involves taking layer structures that are either reduced down size until they reach the nano-scale or deacon structured into their composite parts. The other hand the Bottom-up approach is where materials are constructed from the atomic or molecular components. Designing at the nanoscale is working in a world where physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, and even biology become unified into an integrated field. “Building blocks” for nanomaterials include carbon-based components and organics, semiconductors, metals, and metal oxides; nanomaterials are the infrastructure, or building blocks, for nanotechnology. The last decade has seen advancement in every side of nanotechnology such as: nanoparticles and powders; nanolayers and coats; electrical, optic and mechanical nanodevices; and nanostructure biological materials. Presently, nanotechnology is estimated to be influential in the next 20-30 years, in all fields of science and technology.
The nanotechnology in mechanical engineering and manufacturing is immensely useful to the field. Nanotechnology can be used to increasing the life of the components and automobile parts. A many number of materials can be enhanced by the use of nanotechnology. Nanomaterials exhibit unique physical and chemical properties and impart enhancements to engineered materials. There including better magnetic properties, improved mechanical activity and increased optical properties. Developments are being made to improve the properties of the materials and to find alternative precursors that can give desirable properties on the materials.
Nanotechnology involve the ability to see and to control individual atoms and molecules, everything on earth is made up of atoms the food we eat the clothes we wear the building and houses we live in, and our own bodies. Here are a few illustrative examples.
The microscopes needed to see things at the nanoscale were invented relatively recently. Although modern nanoscience and nanotechnology are quite new, nanoscale materials were used for centuries. Today’s scientists and engineers are finding a wide variety of ways to deliberately make materials at the nanoscience to take advantage of their enhanced properties. such as higher strength, lighter weight, increased control of light spectrum and greater chemical reactivity than their large-scale counter parts.
Nanoscale materials are defined as a set of substances where at least one dimension is less than approximately 100 nanometers. A nanometer is one millionth of a millimeter approximately 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. Nanomaterials are of interest because at this scale unique optical, magnetic, electrical, and other properties emerge. These emergent properties have the potential for great impacts in electronics, medicine, and other fields.
Nanomaterials are resources designed at the molecular (nanometre) level to take advantage of their small size and novel properties which are generally not seen in their conventional, bulk counterparts. The two main reasons why materials at the nanoscale can have different properties are increased relative surface area and new quantum effects.