Implementation of Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring and Protection of High Voltage Transformer

The paper proposes an innovative design to develop a system based on AVR microcontroller that is used for monitoring the voltage, current and temperature of a distribution transformer in a substation and to protect the system from the rise in mentioned parameters. Providing the protection to the distribution transformer can be accomplished by shutting down the entire unit with the aid of the Radio frequency Communication. Moreover the system displays the same on a PC at the main station which is at a remote place. Furthermore it is capable of recognizing the break downs caused due to overload, high temperature and over voltage.


As discussed earlier, maintenance of a transformer is one of the biggest problems in the Electricity Board (EB). During strange events for some reasons the transformer is burned out due to the over load and short circuit in their winding. Also the oil temperature is increased due to the increase in the level of current flowing through their internal windings. This results in an unexpected raise in voltage, current or temperature in the distribution transformer. Therefore, we are proposing the automation of the distribution transformer from the EB substation. In the automation, we consider the voltage, current and temperature as the parameters to be monitored as the transformer shows its peak sensitivity for the same. Hence, we design an automation system based on microcontroller which continuously monitors the transformer. Because of the microcontroller operation, the transformer present in the substation which is turned off in the main station.

Distribution transformers have a long service life if they are operated under good and rated conditions. However, their life is significantly reduced if they are overloaded, resulting in unexpected failures and loss of supply to a large number of customers thus effecting system reliability. Overloading and ineffective cooling of transformers are the major causes of failure in distribution transformers.