Obstructive sleep apria (OSA) is a common problem that affects a person’s breathing during sleep. A person with OSA has time during sleep in which air cannot flow normally into the lungs. The block in air flow (obstruction) is usually caused by the collapse of the soft tissues on the back of the throat (upper air way) and tongue during sleep, American thoracic society (2017). OSA is more common in men, women after menopause and people who are over the age of 65.
It also occurs in children but more in adults than asthma. It still remains substantial but frequently ignored public health threat. Nitric oxide (NO) which is synthesized from L-arginine via endothelial Nitric oxide Synthesis (NOS) is a mediator that includes vasodilation, inhibits platelet aggregation and prevents adhesion of platelets to endothelial cell (spieker et al., 2000). High levels of glutamase in particular are associated with exatotoxicity, a probable mechanism of injury in some brain areas in OSA.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF OSA
These are the symptoms observed and is summarized below:
Common symptoms of OSA during sleep
Snoring that is loud
Gasping or choking sounds
Breathing pauses observed by someone else
Sudden or jerky body movements
Restless tossing and turning
Frequent awakening from sleep.
Common symptoms of OSA while awake
Wake-up feeling like you have not had enough sleep even after sleeping many hours
Dry or sore throat on the morning from breathing through your mouth
Sleepiness during the day
Fatigue or tiredness through the day
Personality changes e.g. mood swings and difficulty getting along with others
Problems with poor memory or inability to concentrate