Earthquakes are the natural hazards with high damage potential. However, by utilizing several principles, it is possible to identify and minimise the resulting social and economic losses, which mainly...
Earthquakes are the natural hazards with high damage potential. However, by utilizing several principles, it is possible to identify and minimise the resulting social and economic losses, which mainly involve loss of human lives, damage to major industrial facilities, civil engineering structures and lifelines.
In the last decades many methodologies on seismic hazard analysis and damage prediction are developed. In recent years, the development of structural design criteria for new structures and renewed importance of the assessment of seismic vulnerability of existing under-designed buildings have broadened the objectives of seismic design. While safety against collapse is still the main goal, performances in terms of functionality and economy assumed a central role in the design criteria.
There are two types of damage in reinforce concrete structures.
a) Structural Damage
The RCC element may suffer a minor to severe level damage. The beams, columns, slabs and RCC walls may get cracks. In some cases there may be partial failure or collapse of local elements.
b) Non â€“ Structural Element Damage
Though damages to the non-structural elements do not pose a threat to stability of structures. It may affect the functioning, movements, services and aesthetics. Failure of non-structural elements may cause loss of life or injury or damage to equipment etc. The non-structural damages such as misalignment of lifts, damage of plumbing work, especially damages to the concealed pipes will lead to leakage and electric wiring.