A simple way to understand how we achieve the separation of the compounds contained in a sample is to view the diagram in Figure G. Frequently called the data system, the computer not only controls all the modules of the HPLC instrument but it takes the signal from the detector and uses it to determine the time of elution (retention time) of the sample components (qualitative analysis) and the amount of sample (quantitative analysis).
Mobile phase enters the column from the left, passes through the particle bed, and exits at the right. Flow direction is represented by green arrows. First, consider the top image; it represents the column at time zero [the moment of injection], when the sample enters the column and begins to form a band. The sample shown here, a mixture of yellow, red, and blue dyes, appears at the inlet of the column as a single black band. [In reality, this sample could be anything that can be dissolved in a solvent; typically the compounds would be colorless and the column wall opaque, so we would need a detector to see the separated compounds as they elute.]
After a few minutes [lower image], during which mobile phase flows continuously and steadily past the packing material particles, we can see that the individual dyes have moved in separate bands at different speeds. This is because there is a competition between the mobile phase and the stationary phase for attracting each of the dyes or analytes. Notice that the yellow dye band moves the fastest and is about to exit the column.
The yellow dye likes [is attracted to] the mobile phase more than the other dyes. Therefore, it moves at a faster speed, closer to that of the mobile phase. The blue dye band likes the packing material more than the mobile phase. Its stronger attraction to the particles causes it to move significantly slower. In other words, it is the most retained compound in this sample mixture. The red dye band has an intermediate attraction for the mobile phase and therefore moves at an intermediate speed through the column. Since each dye band moves at different speed, we are able to separate it chromatographically.
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